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A Sole Executive Agreement Is Likely To Be In Effect Longer Than Is A Treaty

Figure 4 shows estimated coefficients and confidence intervals of 95 percent for all x over the range [0, 0.1]. Even under the strict assumption that the shortest 10% of executive agreements are exclusive executive agreements, there is still a substantial difference between the treaties and the executive agreements of Congress, which is statistically different from 0. Why do members of the House of Representatives tend to be less active on foreign policy issues than on domestic policy? 60 See Infra, Table 3, which shows the share of agreements concluded in the form of contracts for a number of different countries. A full list of countries is also available in Table 2 of the online schedule. With respect to the identity of the parties, the agreements were concluded in the data set between the United States and one or more of 215 countries or governmental organizations and fifty-two international organizations. Table 3 shows the 20 countries with the highest number of agreements in the data set. A full list of agreements by partner countries is included in the online schedule. The three most common contractors are all Western European countries, namely France, Italy and Germany. In multilateral agreements, 20% is concluded in the form of a treaty, which far exceeds the share of all bilateral relations. Martin does an empirical analysis to support the signal theory. It analyzes 4,953 international agreements concluded between 1980 and 1999 and finds that the value of the underlying relationship governed by the agreement is crucial for the use of a treaty or executive agreement by a president. Footnote 53 The value is calculated on the basis of an indicator of the multilateralization of the agreement, the contractor`s GNP per capita and the overall GNP. Footnote 54 Martin notes that presidents are particularly likely to rely on the treaty when the underlying value of the relationship is high.

It concludes from these findings that the contract is reserved for highly committed negotiations, in which the Chair must demonstrate a firm commitment to the contracting parties. 129 In fact, such a scenario is comparable to the process of aligning a linear regression model with non-linear data. The reason why OLS regression is so popular in many social science applications is that the coefficients obtained can still be interpreted as effects of average kovariats, although the data production process is not linear.