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What Year Was The Paris Climate Agreement

The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was extended until 2012. This year, at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (without some industrialized countries withdrawing). They also reaffirmed their commitment made at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, to create a new global climate treaty by 2015 that would require all major emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol, such as China, India and the United States, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – which was to become the Paris Agreement – was to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris agreement came into force earlier than expected in November 2016. In an effort to “significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,” the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to commit as quickly as possible to comparing global greenhouse gas emissions and to become carbon neutral by the second half of this century. To achieve these goals, 186 countries – responsible for more than 90% of global emissions – presented CO2 reduction targets prior to the Paris conference, known as “determined national contributions” (INDC). These targets set out the commitments made by each country to reduce emissions until 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic targets for co2 reduction and individual commitments of some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. “The links between biodiversity, climate change and human health are now well established. That is why, next month, in collaboration with the United Nations and the World Bank, we will hold a one-planet summit on biodiversity, in which we will develop a programme of concrete actions. The Paris Agreement is an unusual mix of steep ambitions and few enforcement mechanisms. Every country in the world has committed to take steps to keep global temperature rise “well below” 2 degrees Celsius until 2100.

This would require weaning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, controlling forest loss, overhauling food production and finding ways to suck greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. But to achieve this goal, countries have been allowed to present their own goals and plans on how to achieve them. It is too short with few concrete sanctions. As part of COP21, France`s strategy includes a wide range of high-level actors (French President, Special Envoy for the Planet, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Climate Ambassadors) supported by an interdepartmental multidisciplinary team. A new theme that has proved to be the centre of gravity of the Paris negotiations[55] was born out of the fact that many of the worst effects of climate change will be too severe or will come too quickly to be avoided by adaptation measures. The Paris Agreement explicitly recognizes the need to repair such losses and damages and seeks to find appropriate responses. [56] It is specified that losses and damage can take different forms, both as immediate effects of extreme weather events and as slow effects, such as land loss at sea level for deep islands. [33] The idea was to create a dynamic structure that could develop at the same time as changes in economies, technology and political will, said Christiana Figueres, who headed the United Nations.